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Software Testing Glossary T

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technical review: A peer group discussion activity that focuses on achieving consensus on the technical approach to be taken. [Gilb and Graham, IEEE 1028] See also peer review.

test: A set of one or more test cases. [IEEE 829]

test approach: The implementation of the test strategy for a specific project. It typically includes the decisions made that follow based on the (test) project’s goal and the risk assessment carried out, starting points regarding the test process, the test design techniques to be applied, exit criteria and test types to be performed.

test automation: The use of software to perform or support test activities, e.g. test management, test design, test execution and results checking.

test basis: All documents from which the requirements of a component or system can be inferred. The documentation on which the test cases are based. If a document can be amended only by way of formal amendment procedure, then the test basis is called a frozen test basis. [After TMap]

test bed: See test environment.

test case: A set of input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution postconditions, developed for a particular objective or test condition, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. [After IEEE 610]

test case design technique: See test design technique.

test case specification: A document specifying a set of test cases (objective, inputs, test actions, expected results, and execution preconditions) for a test item. [After IEEE 829]

test case suite: See test suite.

test charter: A statement of test objectives, and possibly test ideas about how to test. Test charters are used in exploratory testing. See also exploratory testing.

test closure: During the test closure phase of a test process data is collected from completed activities to consolidate experience, testware, facts and numbers. The test closure phase consists of finalizing and archiving the testware and evaluating the test process, including preparation of a test evaluation report. See also test process.

test comparator: A test tool to perform automated test comparison of actual results with expected results.

test comparison: The process of identifying differences between the actual results produced by the component or system under test and the expected results for a test. Test comparison can be performed during test execution (dynamic comparison) or after test execution.

test completion criteria: See exit criteria.

test condition: An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g. a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element.

test control: A test management task that deals with developing and applying a set of corrective actions to get a test project on track when monitoring shows a deviation from what was planned. See also test management.

test coverage: See coverage.

test cycle: Execution of the test process against a single identifiable release of the test object.

test data: Data that exists (for example, in a database) before a test is executed, and that affects or is affected by the component or system under test.

test data preparation tool: A type of test tool that enables data to be selected from existing databases or created, generated, manipulated and edited for use in testing.

test design: (1) See test design specification.
(2) The process of transforming general testing objectives into tangible test conditions and test cases.

test design specification: A document specifying the test conditions (coverage items) for a test item, the detailed test approach and identifying the associated high level test cases. [After IEEE 829]

test design technique: Procedure used to derive and/or select test cases.

test design tool: A tool that supports the test design activity by generating test inputs from a specification that may be held in a CASE tool repository, e.g. requirements management tool, from specified test conditions held in the tool itself, or from code.

test driven development: A way of developing software where the test cases are developed, and often automated, before the software is developed to run those test cases.

test driver: See driver.

test environment: An environment containing hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test. [After IEEE 610]

test estimation: The calculated approximation of a result (e.g. effort spent, completion date, costs involved, number of test cases, etc.) which is usable even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or noisy.

test evaluation report: A document produced at the end of the test process summarizing all testing activities and results. It also contains an evaluation of the test process and lessons learned.

test execution: The process of running a test on the component or system under test, producing actual result(s).

test execution automation: The use of software, e.g. capture/playback tools, to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual results to expected results, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and reporting functions.

test execution phase: The period of time in a software development life cycle during which the components of a software product are executed, and the software product is evaluated to determine whether or not requirements have been satisfied. [IEEE 610]

test execution schedule: A scheme for the execution of test procedures. The test procedures are included in the test execution schedule in their context and in the order in which they are to be executed.

test execution technique: The method used to perform the actual test execution, either manual or automated.

test execution tool: A type of test tool that is able to execute other software using an automated test script, e.g. capture/playback. [Fewster and Graham]

test fail: See fail.

test generator: See test data preparation tool.

test harness: A test environment comprised of stubs and drivers needed to execute a test.

test incident: See incident.

test incident report: See incident report.

test implementation: The process of developing and prioritizing test procedures, creating test data and, optionally, preparing test harnesses and writing automated test scripts.

test infrastructure: The organizational artifacts needed to perform testing, consisting of test environments, test tools, office environment and procedures.

test input: The data received from an external source by the test object during test execution. The external source can be hardware, software or human.

test item: The individual element to be tested. There usually is one test object and many test items. See also test object.

test item transmittal report: See release note.

test leader: See test manager.

test level: A group of test activities that are organized and managed together. A test level is linked to the responsibilities in a project. Examples of test levels are component test, integration test, system test and acceptance test. [After TMap]

test log: A chronological record of relevant details about the execution of tests. [IEEE 829]

test logging: The process of recording information about tests executed into a test log.

test manager: The person responsible for project management of testing activities and resources, and evaluation of a test object. The individual who directs, controls, administers, plans and regulates the evaluation of a test object.

test management: The planning, estimating, monitoring and control of test activities, typically carried out by a test manager.

test management tool: A tool that provides support to the test management and control part of a test process. It often has several capabilities, such as testware management, scheduling of tests, the logging of results, progress tracking, incident management and test reporting.

Test Maturity Model (TMM): A five level staged framework for test process improvement, related to the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), that describes the key elements of an effective test process.

Test Maturity Model Integrated (TMMi): A five level staged framework for test process improvement, related to the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), that describes the key elements of an effective test process.

test monitoring: A test management task that deals with the activities related to periodically checking the status of a test project. Reports are prepared that compare the actuals to that which was planned. See also test management.

test object: The component or system to be tested. See also test item.

test objective: A reason or purpose for designing and executing a test.

test oracle: A source to determine expected results to compare with the actual result of the software under test. An oracle may be the existing system (for a benchmark), a user manual, or an individual’s specialized knowledge, but should not be the code. [After Adrion]

test outcome: See result.

test pass: See pass.

test performance indicator: A high level metric of effectiveness and/or efficiency used to guide and control progressive test development, e.g. Defect Detection Percentage (DDP).

test phase: A distinct set of test activities collected into a manageable phase of a project, e.g. the execution activities of a test level. [After Gerrard]

test plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of intended test activities. It identifies amongst others test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, degree of tester independence, the test environment, the test design techniques and entry and exit criteria to be used, and the rationale for their choice, and any risks requiring contingency planning. It is a record of the test planning process. [After IEEE 829]

test planning: The activity of establishing or updating a test plan.

test policy: A high level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.

Test Point Analysis (TPA): A formula based test estimation method based on function point analysis. [TMap]

test procedure: See test procedure specification.

test procedure specification: A document specifying a sequence of actions for the execution of a test. Also known as test script or manual test script. [After IEEE 829]

test process: The fundamental test process comprises test planning and control, test analysis and design, test implementation and execution, evaluating exit criteria and reporting, and test closure activities.

Test Process Improvement (TPI): A continuous framework for test process improvement that describes the key elements of an effective test process, especially targeted at system testing and acceptance testing.

test progress report: A document summarizing testing activities and results, produced at regular intervals, to report progress of testing activities against a baseline (such as the original test plan) and to communicate risks and alternatives requiring a decision to management.

test record: See test log.

test recording: See test logging.

test reproduceability: An attribute of a test indicating whether the same results are produced each time the test is executed.

test report: See test summary report.

test requirement: See test condition.

test rig: See test environment.

test run: Execution of a test on a specific version of the test object.

test run log: See test log.

test result: See result.

test scenario: See test procedure specification.

test schedule: A list of activities, tasks or events of the test process, identifying their intended start and finish dates and/or times, and interdependencies.

test script: Commonly used to refer to a test procedure specification, especially an automated one.

test session: An uninterrupted period of time spent in executing tests. In exploratory testing, each test session is focused on a charter, but testers can also explore new opportunities or issues during a session. The tester creates and executes test cases on the fly and records their progress. See also exploratory testing.

test set: See test suite.

test situation: See test condition.

test specification: A document that consists of a test design specification, test case specification and/or test procedure specification.

test specification technique: See test design technique.

test stage: See test level.

test strategy: A high-level description of the test levels to be performed and the testing within those levels for an organization or programme (one or more projects).

test suite: A set of several test cases for a component or system under test, where the post condition of one test is often used as the precondition for the next one.

test summary report: A document summarizing testing activities and results. It also contains an evaluation of the corresponding test items against exit criteria. [After IEEE 829]

test target: A set of exit criteria.

test technique: See test design technique.

test tool: A software product that supports one or more test activities, such as planning and control, specification, building initial files and data, test execution and test analysis. [TMap] See also CAST.

test type: A group of test activities aimed at testing a component or system focused on a specific test objective, i.e. functional test, usability test, regression test etc. A test type may take place on one or more test levels or test phases. [After TMap]

testability: The capability of the software product to enable modified software to be tested. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.

testability review: A detailed check of the test basis to determine whether the test basis is at an adequate quality level to act as an input document for the test process. [After TMap]

testable requirements: The degree to which a requirement is stated in terms that permit establishment of test designs (and subsequently test cases) and execution of tests to determine whether the requirements have been met. [After IEEE 610]

tester: A skilled professional who is involved in the testing of a component or system.

testing: The process consisting of all life cycle activities, both static and dynamic, concerned with planning, preparation and evaluation of software products and related work products to determine that they satisfy specified requirements, to demonstrate that they are fit for purpose and to detect defects.

testware: Artifacts produced during the test process required to plan, design, and execute tests, such as documentation, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and clear-up procedures, files, databases, environment, and any additional software or utilities used in testing. [After Fewster and Graham]

thread testing: A version of component integration testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by levels of a hierarchy.

time behavior: See performance.

top-down testing: An incremental approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested. See also integration testing.

traceability: The ability to identify related items in documentation and software, such as requirements with associated tests. See also horizontal traceability, vertical traceability.