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Software Testing Glossary S

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safety: The capability of the software product to achieve acceptable levels of risk of harm to people, business, software, property or the environment in a specified context of use. [ISO 9126]

safety critical system: A system whose failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injury to people, or loss or severe damage to equipment, or environmental harm.

safety testing: Testing to determine the safety of a software product.

sanity test: See smoke test.

scalability: The capability of the software product to be upgraded to accommodate increased loads. [After Gerrard]

scalability testing: Testing to determine the scalability of the software product.

scenario testing: See use case testing.

scribe: The person who records each defect mentioned and any suggestions for process improvement during a review meeting, on a logging form. The scribe has to ensure that the logging form is readable and understandable.

scripted testing: Test execution carried out by following a previously documented sequence of tests.

scripting language: A programming language in which executable test scripts are written, used by a test execution tool (e.g. a capture/playback tool).

security: Attributes of software products that bear on its ability to prevent unauthorized access, whether accidental or deliberate, to programs and data. [ISO 9126] See also functionality.

security testing: Testing to determine the security of the software product. See also functionality testing.

security testing tool: A tool that provides support for testing security characteristics and vulnerabilities.

security tool: A tool that supports operational security.

serviceability testing: See maintainability testing.

severity: The degree of impact that a defect has on the development or operation of a component or system. [After IEEE 610]
simulation: The representation of selected behavioral characteristics of one physical or abstract system by another system. [ISO 2382/1]

simulator: A device, computer program or system used during testing, which behaves or operates like a given system when provided with a set of controlled inputs. [After IEEE 610, DO178b] See also emulator.

site acceptance testing: Acceptance testing by users/customers at their site, to determine whether or not a component or system satisfies the user/customer needs and fits within the business processes, normally including hardware as well as software.

smoke test: A subset of all defined/planned test cases that cover the main functionality of a component or system, to ascertaining that the most crucial functions of a program work, but not bothering with finer details. A daily build and smoke test is among industry best practices. See also intake test.

software: Computer programs, procedures, and possibly associated documentation and data pertaining to the operation of a computer system. [IEEE 610]

software attack: See attack.

Software Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (SFMEA): See Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA).

Software Failure Mode Effect, and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA): See Failure Mode and Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA).

Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA): See Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).

software feature: See feature.

software life cycle: The period of time that begins when a software product is conceived and ends when the software is no longer available for use. The software life cycle typically includes a concept phase, requirements phase, design phase, implementation phase, test phase, installation and checkout phase, operation and maintenance phase, and sometimes, retirement phase. Note these phases may overlap or be performed iteratively.

software product characteristic: See quality attribute.

software quality: The totality of functionality and features of a software product that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. [After ISO 9126]

software quality characteristic: See quality attribute.

software test incident: See incident.

software test incident report: See incident report.

Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI): A questionnaire based usability test technique to evaluate the usability, e.g. user-satisfaction, of a component or system. [Veenendaal]

source statement: See statement.

specification: A document that specifies, ideally in a complete, precise and verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a component or system, and, often, the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. [After IEEE 610]

specification-based testing: See black box testing.

specification-based technique: See black box test design technique.

specification-based test design technique: See black box test design technique.

specified input: An input for which the specification predicts a result.

stability: The capability of the software product to avoid unexpected effects from modifications in the software. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.

staged representation: A model structure wherein attaining the goals of a set of process areas establishes a maturity level; each level builds a foundation for subsequent levels. [CMMI]

standard software: See off-the-shelf software.

standards testing: See compliance testing.

state diagram: A diagram that depicts the states that a component or system can assume, and shows the events or circumstances that cause and/or result from a change from one state to another. [IEEE 610]

state table: A grid showing the resulting transitions for each state combined with each possible event, showing both valid and invalid transitions.

state transition: A transition between two states of a component or system.

state transition testing: A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute valid and invalid state transitions. See also N-switch testing.

statement: An entity in a programming language, which is typically the smallest indivisible unit of execution.

statement coverage: The percentage of executable statements that have been exercised by a test suite.

statement testing: A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute statements.

static analysis: Analysis of software artifacts, e.g. requirements or code, carried out without execution of these software artifacts.

static analysis tool: See static analyzer.

static analyzer: A tool that carries out static analysis.

static code analysis: Analysis of source code carried out without execution of that software.

static code analyzer: A tool that carries out static code analysis. The tool checks source code, for certain properties such as conformance to coding standards, quality metrics or data flow anomalies.

static testing: Testing of a component or system at specification or implementation level without execution of that software, e.g. reviews or static code analysis.

statistical testing
: A test design technique in which a model of the statistical distribution of the input is used to construct representative test cases. See also operational profile testing.

status accounting: An element of configuration management, consisting of the recording and reporting of information needed to manage a configuration effectively. This information includes a listing of the approved configuration identification, the status of proposed changes to the configuration, and the implementation status of the approved changes. [IEEE 610]

storage: See resource utilization.

storage testing: See resource utilization testing.

stress testing: A type of performance testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its anticipated or specified work loads, or with reduced availability of resources such as access to memory or servers. [After IEEE 610] See also performance testing, load testing.

stress testing tool: A tool that supports stress testing.

structure-based testing: See white-box testing.

structure-based technique: See white box test design technique.

structural coverage: Coverage measures based on the internal structure of a component or system.

structural test design technique: See white box test design technique.

structural testing: See white box testing.

structured walkthrough: See walkthrough.

stub: A skeletal or special-purpose implementation of a software component, used to develop or test a component that calls or is otherwise dependent on it. It replaces a called component. [After IEEE 610]

subpath: A sequence of executable statements within a component.

suitability: The capability of the software product to provide an appropriate set of functions for specified tasks and user objectives. [ISO 9126] See also functionality.

suspension criteria: The criteria used to (temporarily) stop all or a portion of the testing activities on the test items. [After IEEE 829]

syntax testing: A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed based upon the definition of the input domain and/or output domain.

system: A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions. [IEEE 610]

system of systems: Multiple heterogeneous, distributed systems that are embedded in networks at multiple levels and in multiple domains interconnected addressing large-scale inter-disciplinary common problems and purposes.

system integration testing: Testing the integration of systems and packages; testing interfaces to external organizations (e.g. Electronic Data Interchange, Internet).

system testing: The process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements. [Hetzel]